GRO Platform

The GRO platform expands the amino acid alphabet to overcome the limitations of protein therapeutics currently impeding the treatment of disease

Our platform comprises Genomically Recoded Organisms (GROs) — the first production organisms with modified genomes and engineered protein translational machinery for high-efficiency production of non-standard amino acid (NSAA) proteins at commercial scale. NSAAs enhance proteins with capabilities inaccessible to the 20 standard amino acids such as unprecedented duration of action and precise control of the immune system.

Click on the hotspots below to see how GROs uniquely enable scalable production of NSAA proteins.

NSAA protein production in a standard organism

Standard Organism Medical Illustration
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In a standard organism target codons are scattered throughout the genome, leading to off-target incorporation of NSAAs that impairs fitness and productivity. Protein translation machinery also competes with NSAA tRNA for recognition of target codons, driving productivity even lower.
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Target codons are scattered throughout the genome, leading to off-target incorporation of NSAAs and depletion of NSAA tRNA.
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Protein translation machinery such as the Release Factor competes with NSAA tRNA for target codons in the gene of interest, resulting in truncated protein or misincorporation of standard amino acids into the protein product.
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Protein products have low yield and poor activity due to truncation and misincorporation.

NSAA protein production in a Genomically Recoded Organism (GRO)

Genomically Recoded Organism (GRO) Platform Medical Illustration
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In a Genomically Recoded Organism (GRO) all genomic target codons are reassigned to synonymous codons. Only the gene of interest (encoding the therapeutic NSAA protein) contains target codons directing NSAA incorporation. Competitive translational machinery for the target codon is then deleted, resulting in efficient, scalable production of NSAA proteins.
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Target codons are present only in the gene of interest, maintaining high organismal fitness and productivity.
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Protein translation machinery that recognizes the target codon is deleted, removing competition for NSAA incorporation into the protein product.
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Protein products have high yield and novel capabilities empowered by NSAAs.